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Module 1-1 - OTL541k

Age Equivalent

When reading assessment reports, the age equivalent is written with a dash. For example, 10-6 means that the age equivalent for this child's performance is 10 years and 6 months. Use with caution because they are often not reliable. (Wright, 1998-2013).

Analytic Rubric

“An analytic rubric articulates levels of performance for each criterion” so that it is explicitly clear to students how they can level up or improve their performance on each criterion (Mueller, 2013).


This “is the process of observing learning; describing, collecting, recording, scoring, and interpreting information about a student's learning” in order to make educational decisions that positively impact the teaching-learning process (newhorizons.org).


“ideally mirroring and measuring student performance in a ‘real-world’ context. Tasks used…are meaningful and valuable” (newhorizons.org).

Common Assessments

“Any assessment given by multiple teachers with the intention of collaboratively examining the results for” curriculum, instruction, “and/or assessment modifications” by the group (Measured Progress, p. 1).

Constructed Response 

“[T]he student must recall or construct [the response]…(e.g., short answer items and essay) and these types of responses typically require “higher level thinking skills” (Pinellas School District & Florida Center for Instructional Technology at USF).


A test in which the results can be used to determine a student's progress toward mastery of a content area” or standard – “what the student knows or can do” (newhorizons.org).

Effect Size 

“Effect size is a simple measure for quantifying the difference between two groups, or the same group over time, on a common scale” (Understanding, using, and calculating effect size).


“Assessment occurring during the [learning] process” in order to use the results to modify the teaching or learning activities to maximize student learning (newhorizons.org).

Grade Equivalent (GE)

“Test scores that equate performance to a particular grade level. Grade equivalent is written with a period. For example, 10.6 means that the grade equivalent for this child's performance is 10 grade, 6th month. Use with caution” because they are often not reliable. (Wright, 1998-2013)

Holistic Rubric

A holistic rubric assigns a level of performance by assessing performance across multiple criteria as a whole, instead of listing separate levels of performance for each criterion, to provide a global impression of the student's work (newhorizons.org).


“Measurement of performance… against an established standard at defined points along the path toward the standard” or targeted skills to measure progress toward achievement (newhorizons.org).


A test in which a student or a group's performance is compared to that of a norm group” --peers with the same characteristics as themselves that were tested in the original group. The results are designed to compare the student's performance with the norm group's performance. “Often used to compare students, schools, districts, and states on norm-established scales of achievement” (newhorizons.org)

Percentiles or Percentile Ranks (PR) 

A point on a score distribution; for example, a student with a score at the 70th percentile performed as well as or better than 70% of the comparison group (newhorizons.org).

Performance Based 

A test of the ability to apply knowledge in a real-life setting” and a rubric or analytic scoring guide is typically used to objectively assess the student's performance (newhorizons.org).

Progress Monitoring  

Progress monitoring is used to quantify a student's rate of improvement or responsiveness to instruction in order to determine “the effectiveness of the instruction” (Wright, 1998-2013).


The measure of consistency…the assessment instrument should yield similar results over time with similar populations in similar circumstances” (newhorizons.org).

Response to Intervention (RTI)

Response to intervention integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-tiered prevention system to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior problems. [It is also used to] identify students with learning disabilities (Glossary of RTI Terms).


A scoring scale used to provide feedback to students on their work. A rubric is composed of criteria for a particular task and levels of performance for each of the criterion (newhorizons.org).

Selected Response 

Often referred to as objective assessments because they include options such as multiple choice, matching, and true/false questions (Pinellas School District & Florida Center for Instructional Technology at USF).

Standard Deviation (SD) 

“A measure of the variability of a distribution of scores” (Wright 1998-2013). It is used to measure the distance of the score from the mean or average. “In a normal distribution, 68% of the scores fall within one standard deviation above and one standard deviation below the mean” (Wright, 1998-2013).

Standard Score 

Score on norm-referenced tests and provides the distribution of scores from the average. Standard scores allow for comparison between students and comparisons of one student over time. Often seen when reading assessment reports for students with disabilities.


Evaluation that is used to summarize the learning at the conclusion of instruction or at a certain point in instruction (Measured Progress).  It can also be used to identify or diagnose any weaknesses in student skills and knowledge or effectiveness of a plan or activity in order to modify instruction.


“The test measures the desired performance, and appropriate inferences can be drawn from the results. The assessment accurately reflects the learning it was designed to measure” (newhorizons.org).

Value Added

“Value-added analysis is a statistical method that helps educators measure the impact schools and teachers have on students’ academic achievement progress rates from year to year” (Ohio Department of Education, 2013). 

Activity Instructions

Compare the statements on the front of each card with the answers on the back.